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James F. Malec, Ph.D., L.P., Rehabilitation Hospital of Indiana at






Malec, JF. (2012). The Advocacy Activity Scale. The Center for Outcome Measurement in Brain Injury.
combi/aas ( accessed ).






AAS References

Nachsen J, Andersen L, Jamieson J. The Parent Advocacy Scale: Measuring advocacy in parents of children with special needs. J Developmental Disabilities, 2001;8(1):93-105.

Schulz AJ, Israel BA, Zimmerman MA, Checkoway BN. Empowerment as a multi-level construct: perceived control at the individual, organizational and community levels. Health Education Research: Theory & Practice, 1995;10(3):309-27.

Malec JF, Brown AW, Moessner AM. Two new measures for assessing advocacy activities and perceived control after acquired brain injury. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2010; 32(1):33-40.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:


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