Sander, PhD, The Institute for Rehabilitation Research at
Citation Sander, A. (2002). The
Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale. The Center for Outcome
Measurement in Brain Injury. http://www.tbims.org/
combi/gose ( accessed
This citation is for the COMBI web material. Dr. Sander is
not the scale author for the GOS-E.
Based on a sample of 50 neurosurgical patients, using 2 independent
raters, inter-rater agreement was 78% using the GOS-E structured
interview (Wilson et al., 1998). The weighted kappa coefficient
was .85, which is nearly perfect.
In a sample of 135 neurosurgical patients assessed at 6 months post-injury,
outcome category as assessed by the GOS-E was related to initial
injury severity, to outcome as assessed by the Disability Rating
Scale, and to scores on self-report measures of health outcome,
including the Beck Depression Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire,
and the SF-36 (Wilson et al., 2001). Outcome as assessed by the
GOS-E was also associated with frequency of symptoms reported on
the Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory (Wilson et al., 2001).
In a sample of 87 patients with mild TBI, moderate TBI, or general
trauma, Levin and colleagues (2001) reported that the criterion
validity of the GOS-E (as determined by association with functional
outcome measures and neuropsychological performance) was superior
to that of the original GOS. They also found that the GOS-E was
more sensitive than the GOS to changes in functioning from the 3-month
to the 6-month follow-up.