MS, Medical College of Virginia at
Citation Marwitz, J. (2000).
The Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory. The Center
for Outcome Measurement in Brain Injury. http://www.tbims.org/
combi/nfi ( accessed
of the psychometric properties of the NFI have been reported extensively
(Kreutzer, Seel, & Marwitz, 1999; Kreutzer, Marwitz, Seel, &
Serio, 1996; Seel, Kreutzer, & Sander, 1997). The first version
of the inventory included 105 items organized into five categories
based on content area. Early experience with the questionnaire provided
support for face validity. The pattern of NFI responses closely
paralleled the pattern reported by other researchers characterizing
the broad spectrum of brain injury sequelae (Kreutzer, Devany, Myers,
& Marwitz, 1991).
analysis study was completed using responses from 520 individuals
(Kreutzer, Marwitz, Seel, & Serio, 1996). Six factors were revealed:
Somatic Difficulties, Memory/Attention Difficulties, Communication
Deficits, Aggressive Behaviors, Motor Impairment, and Depression.
Internal consistency was demonstrated using Cronbach's alpha statistic.
Criterion-related validity was established by demonstrating that
NFI responses were correlated with standardized neuropsychological
and personality measures reflecting patients' status (Kreutzer,
Marwitz, Seel, & Serio, 1996). Later research indicated high
levels of agreement between family members and patients (Seel, Kreutzer,
& Sander, 1997). Sander and colleagues (Sander, Kreutzer, &
Fernandez, 1997) demonstrated that the questionnaire distinguished
between persons who were employed and persons who were unemployed
after brain injury. The NFI has also been helpful in characterizing
the long-term sequelae of injury (e.g., 5 to 35 years postinjury;
Witol, Sander, Seel, & Kreutzer, 1996).