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Dr. Linda Isaac, PhD
Director, Rehabilitation Research Center
Santa Clara Valley Medical Center

Assistant Professor (Affiliated)
Stanford University, School of Medicine
Department of Orthopedic Surgery


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Citation
Wright, J. (2000). The Disability Rating Scale. The Center for Outcome Measurement in Brain Injury. http://www.tbims.org/
combi/drs ( accessed ).*

*Note: This citation is for the COMBI web material. Mr. Wright is not the scale author for the DRS.

 

 

 

 

 

DRS References

Ashley MJ, Persel CS, Clark MC, Krych DK. Long-term follow-up of post-acute traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: a statistical analysis to test for stability and predictability of outcome. Brain Injury 1997;11(9):677-690.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
9376835

Bell KR, Temkin NR, Esselman PC, Doctor JN, Bombardier CH, Fraser RT, Hoffman JM, Powell JM, Dikmen S: The effect of a scheduled telephone intervention on outcome after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86(5):851-6.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
15895327

Boake, CP, High WM: Functional Outcome from Traumatic Brain Injury: Unidimensional or multidimensional? American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1996;75:1.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
8630190

Bowers D, Kofroth L: Comparison: Disability Rating Scale and Functional Independence Measure during recovery from traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989; 70:A58.

Cifu, D, Kreutzer JS, Marwitz JH, et al.: Functional outcomes of older adults with traumatic brain injury: A prospective, multicenter analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 77:838.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
8822678

Cifu, DX, Keyser-Marcus L, Lopez E: Acute predictors of successful return to work 1 year after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 78:125.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
9041891

Clifton, GL, Hayes et al.: Outcome measures for clinical trials involving traumatically brain-injured patients: Report of a conference. Neurosurg 1992;31:975.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
1436429

Cope DN, Hall K: Head injury rehabilitation: benefit of early intervention. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1982; 63:433-437.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
7115044

Cope DN, Cole JR, Hall KM, Barkan H: Brain injury: analysis of outcome in a post-acute rehabilitation system. Part 1: general analysis. Brain Injury 1991; 5(2):111-125. More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID: 1873600

Eliason M, Topp B: Predictive validity of Rappaport's Disability Rating Scale in subjects with acute brain dysfunction. Physical Therapy 1984; 64:1357.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
6473516

Evans CC, Sherer M, Nick TG, Nakase-Richardson R, Yablon SA: Early impaired self-awareness, depression, and subjective well-being following traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2005;20(6):488-500.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
16304486

Fleming, J, BO T, Maas F: Prognosis of rehabilitation outcome in head injury using disability rating scale. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 75:156.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
8311671

Frankel JE, Marwitz JH, Cifu DX, Kreutzer JS, Englander J, Rosenthal M: A follow-up study of older adults with traumatic brain injury: taking into account decreasing length of stay. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87(1):57-62.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
16401439

Fryer L, Haffey W: Cognitive rehabilitation and community readaptation: Outcomes from two program models. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1987;2(3):51-63.

Gouvier WD, Blanton PD, LaPorte KK, Nepomuceno C. Reliability and validity of the disability rating scale and the levels of cognitive functioning scale in monitoring recovery from severe head injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1987;68:94-97.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
3813863

Hall, K: Overview of functional assessment scales in brain injury rehabilitation. NeuroRehabil 1992; 2:98.

Hall K, Cope N, Rappaport M: Glasgow Outcome Scale and Disability Rating Scale: Comparative usefulness in following recovery in traumatic head injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1985; 66:35-37.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
3966866

Hall KM, Hamilton B, Gordon WA, Zasler ND: Characteristics and comparisons of functional assessment indices: disability rating scale, functional independence measure and functional assessment measure. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1993;8(2):60-74.

Hall, KM, Johnston M: Outcomes Evaluation in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: part 2: Measurement Tools for a Nationwide Data System. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 75:SC10.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
7993177

Hall, K et al.: Functional measures after traumatic brain injury: ceiling effects of FIM, FIM+FAM, DRS and CIQ. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1996; 11(5):27-39.

High WM Jr, Roebuck-Spencer T, Sander AM, Struchen MA, Sherer M: Early versus later admission to postacute rehabilitation: impact on functional outcome after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87(3):334-42.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
16500166

Jennett B, Snoek J, Bond MR: Disability after severe injury: observations on use of the Glasgow outcome scale. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1981; 44:285-293.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
6453957

Lammi MH, Smith VH, Tate RL, Taylor CM: The minimally conscious state and recovery potential: a follow-up study 2 to 5 years after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86(4):746-54.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
15827927

Leung KL, Man DW: Prediction of vocational outcome of people with brain injury after rehabilitation: a discriminant analysis. Work 2005;25(4):333-40.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
16340110

Malec JF, Thompson JM: Relationship of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory to functional outcome and cognitive performance measures. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1994; 9:1.

Mammi P, Zaccaria B, Franceschini M: Early rehabilitative treatment in patients with traumatic brain injuries: outcome at one-year follow-up. Eura Medicophys 2006;42(1):17-22.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
16565681

Ng YS, Chua KS: States of severely altered consciousness: clinical characteristics, medical complications and functional outcome after rehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation 2005;20(2):97-105.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
15920302

Niemeier JP, Kreutzer JS, Taylor LA: Acute cognitive and neurobehavioural intervention for individuals with acquired brain injury: preliminary outcome data. Neuropsychol Rehabil 2005;15(2):129-46.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
16353506

Novack TA, Bergquist TF, Bennett G, Gouvier WD: Primary caregiver distress following severe head injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1992;6(4):69-77.

Ozbudak Demir S, Gorgulu G, Koseoglu F: Comparison of rehabilitation outcome in patients with aphasic and non-aphasic traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Med 2006;38(1):68-71.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
16548091

Pastorek NJ, Hannay HJ, Contant CS: Prediction of global outcome with acute neuropsychological testing following closed-head injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2004;10(6):807-17.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
15637771

Ponsford JL, Olver JH, Curran C, Ng K: Prediction of employment status 2 years after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 9:11, 1995.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
7874091

Rao N, Kilgore K: Predicting return to work in traumatic brain injury using a variety of assessment scales. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71(September):763-764.

Rao N, Kilgore KM: Predicting return to work in traumatic brain injury using assessment scales. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:911-916.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
1417465

Rappaport M: The Disability Rating Scale and Coma/Near Coma scales in evaluating severe head injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 2005;15(3/4):442-453.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
16350985

Rappaport M, Hall KM, Hopkins HK, et al.: Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: coma to community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1982;63:118-123.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
7073452

Rappaport M, Herrero-Backe C, Rappaport ML, Winterfield K: Head injury outcome up to ten years later. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1989; 70: 885-892.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
2596962

Scranton J, Fogel ML, Erdman WJ II: Evaluation of functional levels of patients during and following rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1970;51: 1-21.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
5412921

Sherer M, Nakase-Thompson R, Yablon SA, Gontkovsky STMultidimensional assessment of acute confusion after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86(5):896-904.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
15895334

Teasdale G, Jennett B: Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: A practical scale. Lancet 1974;2:81-84.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
4136544

Testa JA, Malec JF, Moessner AM, Brown AW: Outcome after traumatic brain injury: effects of aging on recovery. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86(9):1815-23.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
16181948

Whitlock J: Functional outcome of low-level traumatically brain-injured admitted to an acute rehabilitation programme. Brain Injury 1992; 6:447.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
1393177

Whyte J, Katz D, Long D, DiPasquale MC, Polansky M, Kalmar K, Giacino J, Childs N, Mercer W, Novak P, Maurer P, Eifert B: Predictors of outcome in prolonged posttraumatic disorders of consciousness and assessment of medication effects: A multicenter study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86(3):453-62.
More information is available from PubMed at this link, PMID:
15759228

 

 
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